Mark Galeotti, M.A., Ph.D.
Office Phone: 212.992.8372
Dr Mark Galeotti is Clinical Professor of Global Affairs of the Center for Global Affairs, responsible for the MS in Global Affairs program, faculty research and all other academic aspects of the CGA other than its public events and continuing education series.
He is a specialist in transnational organized crime, security affairs and modern Russia. He started his academic career concentrating on conventional security issues, including the impact of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the implications of the disintegration of the USSR. However, in his fieldwork he encountered the rising new generation of gangsters carving out their portions of the decaying Soviet Union and was one of the first Western academics to recognize this as an emerging security concern. Since then, he has become increasingly interested in the transnationalisation of not just Russian but all forms of organized crime and their impact on the international order and development as a shadowy opposite to the global citizenship at the heart of the CGA’s mission.
Dr Galeotti read history at Cambridge University and then took his doctorate in politics at the London School of Economics. He has worked as a researcher in the British Houses of Parliament and in the City of London, and visiting professor of public security at Rutgers-Newark, but before joining the faculty of the Center for Global Affairs he had been head of the history department at Keele University in the UK and the founding director of its Organized Russian & Eurasian Crime Research Unit, the only such specialized center in Europe. He spent 1995-6 on attachment to the British Foreign & Commonwealth Office as a senior adviser and has worked with a wide range of commercial, law enforcement and government agencies, from the State Department and FBI to Interpol and NATO.
Dr Galeotti founded the interdisciplinary journal Global Crime and wrote a monthly column on post-Soviet affairs in Jane’s Intelligence Review from 1991 to 2007. He has published widely, with 11 authored and edited books to his name (his most recent is the edited volume The Politics of Security in Modern Russia, published by Ashgate in 2010) and numerous other pieces, from articles in peer-reviewed academic journals to newspaper op-eds.
At the CGA, he teaches courses including Russia, Transnational Crime, Intelligence & Counter-Intelligence, Hard Power: the uses and abuses of military force and Global Empires.
What are the security issues defining the twenty-first century? Despite the attention paid to terrorism, I would contend that it is organised and transnational crime, both in its own right and also as a facilitator for so many other problems, from millenarian violence to environmental degradation. After all, where do today’s bombers tend to get their explosives and false IDs? From criminals? And who make massive profits from circumventing laws on the safe, clean disposal of toxic wastes? Criminals again. My own professional trajectory has tracked the evolution of security studies, from being a student of Soviet military affairs, relevant to pre-1991 concerns about armed conflict between two opposed blocs, through to the study of newer, diffuse threats in a modern era of networked, transnational non-state actors.
As such, I find myself bisected between two separate, but complementary areas of interdisciplinary study. On the one hand, I explore the contemporary challenges, in particular those posed by Russian and other post-Soviet criminal networks, which in turn connect and work with a range of other ‘dark networks’, from Sicilian mafiosi to Afghan warlords. Meanwhile, I retain a keen core research interest in Russian politics, albeit still seen especially through the lens of security affairs (although ever since Putin first came to power, that again seems the lens the Kremlin uses, too).
On the other, I stick to my first love, history, and work on the place of organised crime within societies, both for its intrinsic merits and also the insights it provides into wider questions of state-building, law and legitimacy.
To this end, I am working on several parallel projects. One is a book, tentatively titled Criminal World, which tracks the evolution of organised crime across time and space to explore the relationship between ‘upperworld’ of legitimate state and society and its underworld. It is not just that organised crime arises inside societies, but that there is a direct correlation between how organised a society is, and in what way it is organised, and the shape and power of its organised crime. In this respect, organised crime tells us much about the societies in which it operates precisely because it is in many ways its shadow, its shape defined by the contours of the milieu which produced it.
The second is a study specifically of Russian organized crime, both tracking its historical roots and exploring its present significance. Given how quickly and effectively Russian organized crime networks internationalized, this is implicitly also a study of globalization from an underworld perspective – and its limitations.
At the same time, I continue to follow a number of smaller projects, from an analysis of Russian security and paramilitary forces to tracking how Turkish organized crime has responded to recent developments, and in particular the shift of large proportions of the heroin trade into Europe to new, Russian routes.
MAIN PUBLICATIONS AND ACTIVITIES
A. Books authored and edited
1. The Politics of Security in Modern Russia (London: Ashgate, 2010)
2. Organized Crime in History (London: Routledge, 2009)
3. Global Crime Today: the changing face of organised crime (London: Routledge, 2005)
4. Criminal Russia: a sourcebook and coursebook on 150 years of crime, corruption & policing (Keele, ORECRU, revised 4th edition, 2003)
5. Russian and Post-Soviet Organized Crime (London, Ashgate, 2002)
6. Putin’s Russia (London, Jane’s, 2002), co-edited with Ian Synge
7. Gorbachev and his Revolution (Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1997). Elements of this book were republished within People Who Made History: Mikhail Gorbachev, edited by Tom Head (New York, Gale: 2003)
8. Jane’s Sentinel: Russia (Coulsdon, Jane’s, 1997)
9. Unstable Russia: a regional commercial risk assessment (Coulsdon, Jane’s, 1996)
10. The Age of Anxiety. Security and Politics in Soviet and Post-Soviet Russia (Harlow, Longman Higher Academic, 1995). Translated into Czech as Cas Uzkosti (Prague, Orbis, 1998)
11. Afghanistan: the Soviet Union’s last war (London, Frank Cass, 1995, new edition released in paperback 2001).
12. The Kremlin’s Agenda (Coulsdon, Jane’s Information Group, 1995)
B. Chapters in books
1. ‘Crime in post-Soviet societies’, in M Herzog-Evans (ed), Transforming Criminology, Vol. I (Olsterwijk: Wolf Legal, 2011)
2. ‘Introduction’, in M. Galeotti (ed), The Politics of Security in Modern Russia (London: Ashgate, 2010)
3. ‘The Security Apparatus: Putin’s praetorians’, in M. Galeotti (ed), The Politics of Security in Modern Russia (London: Ashgate, 2010)
4. ‘Criminal Histories’, in M. Galeotti (ed), Organized Crime in History (London, Routledge, 2009)
5. ‘The World of the Lower Depths: crime and punishment in Russian history,’ in M. Galeotti (ed), Organized Crime in History (London, Routledge, 2009)
6. ‘The Criminalisation of Russian State Security’, in R Bunker (ed), Criminal States and Criminal-Soldiers (London: Routledge, 2008)
7. ‘Foreword,’ in J Finckenauer, Mafia and Organized Crime (Oxford, OneWorld, 2007)
8. ‘Mafia and Organized Crime’, in D Clark (ed), Encyclopedia of Law & Society (Thousand Oakes, Sage, 2007)
9. ‘Turkish Organized Crime’, ‘Organized Crime, the Russian Military and Nuclear Smuggling’ and ‘Overview: Organized Crime in Central Asia’, in F Shanty (ed), Organized Crime: an international encyclopaedia (Santa Barbara, CA, ABC-CLIO, 2007)
10. ‘Private Security and Public Insecurity: outsourced vigilantism in modern Russia’, in D Pratten & A Sen (eds), Global Vigilantes (New York: Columbia University Press and London: Hurst, 2007)
11. ‘Global Crime Today’, in M Galeotti (ed), Global Crime Today (London, Routledge, 2005)
12. ‘The Russian Mafia: consolidation and globalization’, in M Galeotti (ed), Global Crime Today (London, Routledge, 2005)
13. ‘”Brotherhoods” and “Associates”: Chechen networks of crime and resistance’, in R Bunker (ed), Networks, Terrorism & Global Insurgency (London, Frank Cass, 2005)
14. ‘What Implications for Russia’s Development have Securitisation, Crime and Corruption?’ in R Larrson (ed), Whither Russia? (Stockholm, FOI, 2004)
15. ‘Special Purpose Forces’ and ‘Ministry of Internal Affairs’, in J Millar (ed), Encyclopedia of Russian History (New York, Gale, 2003)
16. ‘The Challenge of ‘Soft Security’: crime, corruption and chaos’, in D Averre & A Cottey (eds), New Security Challenges in Postcommunist Europe (Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2002)
17. ‘Transnational Organized Crime: law enforcement as a global battlespace’, in R Bunker (ed), Non-State Threats and Future Wars (London, Frank Cass, 2002)
18. ‘Putin and his Russia’, in M Galeotti (ed), Putin’s Russia (London, Jane’s, 2002)
19. ‘Crime, Chaos and Control’, in M Galeotti (ed), Putin’s Russia (London, Jane’s, 2002)
20. ‘Putin’s Russia: an afterword’, in M Galeotti (ed), Putin’s Russia (London, Jane’s, 2002)
21. ‘Introduction’ in M Galeotti (ed), Russian and Post-Soviet Organised Crime (London, Ashgate, 2002)
22. ‘Underworld and upperworld: organized crime and global society’, in D Josselin & W Wallace (eds), Non-State Actors in World Politics (Basingstoke, Macmillan, 2001)
23. ‘Stealing the Millennium: the Growing Challenge of Organized and Transnational Crime’, in LENS Report 2001 (LENS, London, 2001)
24. ‘The Russia Mafiya: economic penetration at home and abroad’, in A Ledeneva & M Kurkchiyan (eds), Economic Crime in Russia (Amsterdam, Kluwer, 2000)
25. ‘”Who’s the boss: us or the law?” The corrupt art of ruling Russia’, in S Lovell et al (eds), Bribery and Corruption in Russia (Basingstoke, Macmillan, 2000)
26. ‘The “Power Ministries” and Russian Foreign Policy’, in Godzimirski J (ed) New and Old Actors in Russian Foreign Policy (Oslo, NUPI, 2000)
27. ‘Crime, corruption and the law’, in M Bowker & C Ross (eds), Russia after the Cold War (Harlow, Longman, 2000)
28. ‘The “Russian Mafiya” and Europe’s narcotics problem’, in Interpol and Technology in Partnership: fighting drug trafficking (London, Interpol/National Criminal Intelligence Service, 1999)
29. ‘Organized Crime in the Former Soviet Union: roots, resources and responses’, in OSCE – a need for cooperation (Copenhagen, Danish UN Association, 1997)
30. ‘Russia and her neighbours: partner, threat or problem?’, Defence ’96 (Coulsdon, Jane’s, 1996)
31. ‘Russia and Eurasia: Out-of-Area Operations and Peacekeeping’, in R Hall (ed), The World in Conflict, (Coulsdon, Jane’s, 1995)
C. Articles in Peer-reviewed publications
1. ‘Litvinenko, Aleksandr Valtervich’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2010)
2. ‘Criminal Histories’, Global Crime 9.1/9.2 (2008)
3. ‘The World of the Lower Depths: crime and punishment in Russian history,’ Global Crime 9.1/9.2 (2008)
4. ‘Forward To The Past: Organized Crime and Cuba’s History, Present And Future’, Trends in Organized Crime 9 (2006)
5. ‘The Transdnistrian Connection: Big Problems from a Small Pseudo-State,’ Global Crime 6 (2005)
6. ‘The Russian Mafia: consolidation and globalization’, Global Crime 6 (2004)
7. ‘Transnational Organized Crime: law enforcement as a global battlespace’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 13 (2002)
8. ‘”Brotherhoods” and “Associates”: Chechen networks of crime and resistance’, Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement 11 (2002)
9. ‘Turkish organized crime: where state, crime and rebellion conspire’, Transnational Organized Crime 4 (2000)
10. ‘The Mafiya and the New Russia’, Australian Journal of Politics & History, 44 (1998)
11. ‘Russian Police and Security Apparatus in the 1980s and 1990s’, Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement 2 (1993)
12. ‘Perestroika, Perestrelka, Pereborka: policing Russia in a time of change’, Europe-Asia Studies 45 (1993)
13. ‘Organized Crime in Moscow and Russian National Security’, Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement 1 (1992)
D. Other academic and professional journal articles
I wrote a monthly column for Jane’s Intelligence Review, ‘Russia Watch’, from 1991 until the end of 2006, and contributed around 50 additional articles to the journal in that time.
1. ‘Medvedev’s Law on the Police: a quiet revolution?’, oD: Russia, 1 March 2011
2. ‘Retirement Plans: Russian mafia boss considers his future’, Jane’s Intelligence Review, January 2011
3. ‘Russia’s Reform Act’, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 29 September 2010
4. ‘Spirited Away: the rise of global kidnapping trends’, Jane’s Intelligence Review, April 2010
5. ‘People-trafficking and Illegal Migration: not just human but international security challenges’, Perspectives on Global Issues, 4, 2 (2010)
6. ‘Eastern Empires: criminals infiltrate Russia’s Far East’, Jane’s Intelligence Review, March 2010
7. ‘IMU looks to return to its roots’, Jane’s Islamic Affairs Analyst, February 2010
8. ‘Force projections – the future of Russia’s military reform’, Jane’s Intelligence Review, February 2010
9. ‘Route of the problem: trafficking and addiction threaten Russia’, Jane’s Intelligence Review, November 2009
10. ‘Behind the Scenes: Uralmash gang retreats into the shadows’, Jane’s Intelligence Review, September 2009
11. ‘Hard Times: organised crime and the global financial crisis’, Jane’s Intelligence Review, August 2009
12. ‘North Caucasus insurgents shift focus’, Jane’s Islamic Affairs Analyst, July 2009
13. ‘Chechen president turns to nation-building’, Jane’s Islamic Affairs Analyst, June 2009
14. ‘Multi-player Games: Central Asia pits powers against each other’, Jane’s Intelligence Review, March 2009
15. ‘Kadyrov’s Islam creates Chechen autocracy’, Jane’s Islamic Affairs Analyst, January 2009
16. ‘Russian Islam finds its voice’, Jane’s Islamic Affairs Analyst, December 2008
17. ‘Cold calling: competition heats up for arctic resources’, Jane’s Intelligence Review, October 2008
18. ‘Blood Brothers: the rise of Chechen organized crime’, Jane’s Intelligence Review, August 2008
19. ‘Bodies of Evidence: decoding tattoos used by criminal gangs’, Jane’s Intelligence Review, July 2008
20. ‘Empire of the Sun: Russian organised crime goes global’, Jane’s Intelligence Review, April 2008
21. ‘Radicalizing Russia’s Caucasian Moslems’, Jane’s Islamic Affairs Analyst, October 2007
22. ‘Raising the Roof: the rise of the Russian private security industry,’ Crime & Justice International, 95 (2006)
23. ‘Russia and Chechnya: not one war, but two’, World Today 60 (2004)
24. ‘Russian Police Reform’, Crime & Justice International, 2 (2003)
25. ‘Crime Pays’, World Today 58 (2002)
26. ‘Business as Usual for Afghan Drugs’, World Today 57 (2001)
27. ‘Russian security forces and organized crime: mafiya, militia and military,’ Bulletin of the Conflict, Security & Development Group, 12 (2001)
28. ‘European Procurement Trends, Defense & Security Review 1998
29. ‘NATO’s 50th – is a half century enough?’, Defense & Security Review 1998
30. ‘Policy and Procurement in the former Soviet bloc’, Defense & Security Review 1997
31. ‘Moscow Rules: reading between the lines about crime in Russia’, Slovo 8 (1995)
32. ‘A Critical Absence of Will’, Russia and the World 20 (1991)
33. ‘Baku, January 1990 – an exercise in desperation’, Slovo 3 (1990)
34. ‘Why the Soviet Union needs a Professional Army’, Defense Analysis 6 (1990)
35. ‘Civil Society in Uniform’, Russia and the World 17 (1990)
36. ‘Life after the Party: Prokhanov’s “Sufficient Defense”‘, Russia and the World 18 (1990)
37. ‘The Military’s New Battlefields’, Detente 16 (1989)
E. Published Reports
1. British Policy and Russian Crime: time to get serious?, memorandum submitted to and published by the House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee, 1999
2. Private Security and Public Insecurity: the rise and implications of the Russian private security industry, ORECRU Special Report, 1998
3. Heirs of the KGB, Jane’s Intelligence Review Special Report, 1998
4. Turkish Organized Crime: the threat to the UK, for National Criminal Intelligence Service, 1997
5. Policing Russia, Jane’s Intelligence Review Special Report, 1997
6. Organized Crime in the former Soviet Union: an introduction to the opportunities and the threats, for Kroll Associates, 1997
7. Russia’s Praetorians: internal security and intelligence forces, distributed by the Office of the Special Adviser to the NATO Secretary General, 1996
8. Mafiya: organized crime in Russia and its international implications, Jane’s Intelligence Review Special Report, 1996
9. Cross-Border Crime in the Former Soviet Union, International Boundaries Research Unit, Durham; 1995
10. The Rise of a Criminal Superpower: Organized Crime in Russia, for US Department of Defense (National Defense University), 1995
11. Russia 2014, for US Department of Defense (National Defense University), 1994
12. A Glossary of Russian Police and Security Service Acronyms and Abbreviations, this is periodically updated and freely available on the Keele University History website @ http://www.keele.ac.uk/depts/hi/resources/modern%resources/PoliceGlossary-v3.pdf. It has also been distributed within the Foreign Office and related agencies, the UK Ministry of Defence, Interpol and the Pentagon.
F. Online Commentaries, Magazines, Newspapers and Popular Journals
As noted above, I wrote a monthly column on Russian/post-Soviet security issues for Jane’s Intelligence Review (formerly Jane’s Soviet Intelligence Review) 1991-2006, and contributed frequently on other security-related issues, covering topics from the evolution of the Japanese yakuza to weapons smuggling.
My blog, In Moscow’s Shadows (http://inmoscowsshadows.wordpress.com/) has been live since August 2008 and has been widely quoted.
Furthermore, I have covered issues relating to transnational crime and national security affairs for oD: Russia, International Police Review, Jane’s Terrorism & Security Monitor, Fraud Intelligence, Jane’s Defence Weekly, Jane’s Intelligence Digest, Jane’s Intelligence Weekly, Jane’s Foreign Report, IISS’s Strategic Comments, Armed Forces, Boundary & Security Bulletin, Cross-Border Control International, European Brief, the old RFE/RL Report on the USSR and the Japanese news magazine Foresight. I also write brief reports on foreign affairs, terrorism, proliferation and Russian crime and security affairs for Oxford Analytica and periodically comment online for RFE/RL.
I have written 11 newspaper op-eds (for the Washington Post, Guardian, Times (London), Wall Street Journal, Times Higher Education Supplement, Daily Mirror, the Polish Gazeta Wyborcza, Czech Lidove Noviny and Russian Moscow Times)
G. Editorships/Membership of Editorial Boards
1. Managing Editor, Global Crime, 2003-2007, Founding Editor and member of the Editorial Board, 2007-
2. Member, Editorial Advisory Board, Journal of Strategic Security, 2010-
3. Editorial Adviser, Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1991-2006
4. Member of the Scientific Board, Journal of Power Institutions in Post-Soviet Societies, 2004-
5. Member of the Editorial Board, Crime & Justice International, 2002-
6. European Editor, Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement, 1992-2005
7. Transnational Organized Crime Commissioning Editor, Jane’s Terrorism & Security Monitor, 2006
8. Member, LENS (Law Enforcement & National Security) Global Forum Advisory Panel, 2000-2002
9. Member, Royal Institute for International Affairs Steering Group on International Drugs Trade & Organized Crime, 1997-99
10. Former Soviet Union Editor, Boundary & Security Bulletin, 1993-2005
H. Conferences and Series Organized
1. Convenor, Bad Company: conversations about the new global underworld speaker series, Center for Global Affairs, NYU, 2010-
2. Convenor, CGA Faculty Symposium 2010, NYU, March 2010
3. Academic Program Manager, First LENS (Law Enforcement & National Security) Global Forum, Edinburgh, September 2001
4. Academic Program Manager, National Criminal Intelligence Service International Conference, March 1999
5. Convener, Russia-China-Japan. One-day Foreign Office workshop held at the International Institute for Strategic Studies, London, March 1997
6. Convener, Good Order is the Foundation of All Things’: Crime and Policing in Modern Europe. Self-financing two-day workshop at Keele University, September 1994